Ukraine on map
Ukraine is the state located in Central and Eastern Europe. It covers the south-west of the East European Plain, part of the Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains. In the south Ukraine is washed by the waters of the Azov and Black Seas. A significant part of Ukraine lies in the Dnipro river basin; the river divides the country into the Right Bank and the Left Bank.
Ukraine on map
The territory of Ukraine is 603,700 sq km. By its size, it is 41st largest in the world.
From the north to the south the state stretches for 893 km, from the west to the east – 1316 km.
Ukraine has a land and sea border with the total length of 7590 kilometers. The land border of the country is 5,631 km long and consists of three sections – western, northern and eastern. The length of the sea border is 1959 km.
On land, Ukraine borders on:
- The Russian Federation (1962 km)
- Republic of Moldova (1,202 km)
- Republic of Belarus (1,084 km)
- Poland (542 km)
- The Slovak Republic (98 km)
- Hungary (135 km)
- Romania (608 km)
History of Ukraine
The first human settlements on the territory of modern Ukraine belong to the era of the Early Paleolithic. Approximately 900 thousand years ago these lands were inhabited by Pithecanthropus. Over time, their tools were discovered, but the remains of the settlers themselves were not found. In 1500 BC, the first nomadic tribes appeared. At first they were Cimmerians, then closer to the 7th century BC they were Scythians.
Approximately in V century BC the first Greek colonies appeared; eventually they merged into the Bosporan state. Although the Scythians were the first to create a centralized state on the territory of Ukraine, approximately in the III century BC they were superseded by the Sarmatians – nomadic Iranian-speaking tribes.
The first Slavic tribes on these lands date back to the 5th century AD. They were, first of all, antes. Over time, the early Slavonic tribes were united in the principalities of the dulebes, the ulcers, and so on. The Khazar Khaganate was also a great power in the territory of Ukraine. In IX-X centuries Prince Oleg liberated Dnieper land from the yoke of the Khaganate. At about the same time, the capital of the Old Russian state was moved to Kiev. In 988, at the insistence of Prince Vladimir the Great, Christianity became the state religion.
In XII century, civil wars began; it resulted in the state braking up into separate principalities. The year of 1132 when the son of Vladimir Monomakh died – Grand Duke Mstislav Vladimirovich, is believed to be the beginning of the factionalism. Kiev, Chernigov, Galicia, Vladimir-Volynskoe and several other principalities appeared on the territory of modern Ukraine. In XII-XIII centuries, the raids of the Polovtsi and destruction of Kiev became more frequent.
In 1169, the grandson of Vladimir Monomakh sent his son to capture Kiev. This is when many temples were destroyed and burnt. And in 1237 the invasion of Batu began. As a result, at the end of the thirteenth century the principality of Kiev became desolated. In XIV century, some lands (Kiev, Galicia, Volhyn, Chernigov) became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1385, because of multiple internal conflicts, the principality made alliance agreement with the Polish kingdom. During the coming hundred years, there were three internal wars in the Lithuanian principality.
In 15th century, the Crimean Khanate was formed, and in 16th century – Zaporizhzhya Sich. Because of the heavy oppression on the part of the Polish tycoons, the Ukrainian Cossacks broke out in revolt led by Bogdan Khmelnitsky. At first they were successful, but in 1651, under the Berestetskaya battle, the Polish army prevailed. Then during the Pereyaslavsky Council they have taken the decision to give part of the controlled lands under the patronage of Russia; it resulted in a long Russian-Polish war that was started in 1654.
After Bogdan Khmelnitsky’s death, the country lost its integrity and was on the verge of a civil war. In 1672 the Polish-Turkish war was declared; this is when Podillya was governed by the Ottomans, and Kamenets-Podolsky temporarily became administrative center. In 1681, the Russian state and the Ottoman Empire signed the agreement stating that the border goes along the Dnieper.
During the Northern War, which began in 1700, Ivan Mazepa, taking advantage of the situation, decided to get out of the control of the Russian kingdom, but was defeated. The entire XVIII century was marked by the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between Russia, Austria and Prussia. With the accession of Catherine II, the Zaporozhye Sich was liquidated.
At the end of the XVIII and the beginning of the XIX century the formation of a modern Ukrainian nation under the leadership of the newly formed national movement began. Taras Shevchenko made a significant contribution to the formation of the nation. From 1918 to 1921, Ukraine experienced a civil war and the Soviet-Polish war, where it was aligned with Poland. The Soviet state won the war and on December 30, 1922, the Ukrainian SSR became part of the USSR.
In the 30s, many events took place in Ukraine, such as dekulakization, collectivization, Stalinist repressions, etc.
During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) the territory of Ukraine was completely captured by the Nazis: many cities and villages were completely destroyed. More than 5 million citizens of Ukraine were killed.
On August 24, 1991 the Verkhovna Rada proclaimed the independence of Ukraine.
In November 2013, the events of EuroMaidan began; it led to a change of power. On March 11, 2014, the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol unilaterally declared independence; on May 12, the executives of self-proclaimed Donetsk and Lugansk republics declared independence. Shortly thereafter, military operations began on the territory of these republics; military operations continue up to this day (2018).
Tours in Kyiv
- Kiev General Tour – the best start to get to know the city, for those who is here for the first time.
- Kiev Pechersk Lavra – the must-see sight of Kiev, the first monastery of Kyiv, full of legends.
- World War II Tour – the National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War with 102 meters high Motherland Monument.
- Gastro Tour – for foodies who are interested in Ukrainian cuisine.
- Full day Tour – a mix of Old Town, Kiev Pechersk Lavra and the Museum of War.
- Mezhyhirya Tour – tour out of the city. New outstanding attraction and the symbol of corruption.
- Podil Tour – mysterious and cozy tour for those who like cute paths and old buildings.
- Street Art Tour – if you want to look at Kiev from a different angle.
- Kiev Bar Crawl – the best option for partygoers, because our beautiful lady guide will bring you to the hot spots of Kiev nightlife.
Contact Guide me UA to order private city tours in Kiev:
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